Part I        Writing        (30minutes)


For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a short essay entitled On Excessive Packaging following the outline given bellow. You should write at least 120 words but no more than 180 words.

1. 目前许多商品存在过度包装的现象
2. 出现这一现象的原因
3. 我对这一现象的看法和建议

On Excessive Packaging

Part II        Reading Comprehension (Skimming and Scanning)        (15 minutes)

Directions:In this part, you will have 15 minutes to go over the passage quickly and answer the questions on Answer Sheet 1. For questions 1-7, choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). For questions 8-10, complete the sentences with the information given in the passage.

Small Schools Rising

      This year's list of the top 100 high schools shows that today, those with fewer students are flourishing.
      Fifty years ago, they were the latest thing in educational reform: big, modern, suburban high schools with students counted in the thousands. As baby boomers (二战后婴儿潮时期出生的人) came of high-school age, big schools promised economic efficiency, a greater choice of courses, and, of course, better football teams. Only years later did we understand the trade-offs this involved: the creation of excessive bureaucracies (官僚机构), the difficulty of forging personal connections between teachers and students. SAT scores began dropping in 1963; today, on average, 30% of students do not complete high school in four years, a figure that rises to 50% in poor urban neighborhoods. While the emphasis on teaching to higher, test-driven standards as set in No Child Left Behind resulted in significantly better performance in elementary (and some middle) schools, high schools for a variety of reasons seemed to have made little progress.
      Size isn't everything, but it does matter, and the past decade has seen a noticeable countertrend toward smaller schools. This has been due, in part, to the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, which has invested $1.8 billion in American high schools, helping to open about 1,000 small schools—most of them with about 400 kids each, with an average enrollment of only 150 per grade. About 500 more are on the drawing board. Districts all over the country are taking notice, along with mayors in cities like New York, Chicago and San Diego. The movement includes independent public charter schools, such as No. 1 BASIS in Tucson, with only 120 high-schoolers and 18 graduates this year. It embraces district-sanctioned magnet schools, such as the Talented and Gifted School, with 198 students, and the Science and Engineering Magnet, with 383, which share a building in Dallas, as well as the City Honors School in Buffalo, N.Y., which grew out of volunteer evening seminars for students. And it includes alternative schools with students selected by lottery (抽签), such as H-B Woodlawn in Arlington, Va. And most noticeable of all, there is the phenomenon of large urban and suburban high schools that have split up into smaller units of a few hundred, generally housed in the same grounds that once boasted thousands of students all marching to the same band.
      Hillsdale High School in San Mateo, Calif., is one of those, ranking No. 423—among the top 2% in the country—on Newsweek's annual ranking of America's top high schools. The success of small schools is apparent in the listings. Ten years ago, when the first Newsweek list based on college-level test participation was published, only three of the top 100 schools had graduating classes smaller than 100 students. This year there are 22. Nearly 250 schools on the full Newsweek list of the top 5% of schools nationally, had fewer than 200 graduates in 2007.
      Although many of Hillsdale's students came from wealthy households, by the late 1990s average test scores were sliding and it had earned the unaffectionate nickname (绰号) "Hillsjail". Jeff Gilbert, a Hillsdale teacher who became principal last year, remembers sitting with other teachers watching students file out of a graduation ceremony and asking one another in astonishment, "How did that student graduate?"
      So in 2003 Hillsdale remade itself into three "houses", romantically designated Florence, Marrakech and Kyoto. Each of the 300 arriving ninth graders are randomly (随机地) assigned to one of the houses, where they will keep the same four core subject teachers for two years, before moving on to another for 11th and 12th grades. The closeness this system cultivates is reinforced by the institution of "advisory" classes. Teachers meet with students in groups of 25, five mornings a week, for open-ended discussions of everything from homework problems to bad Saturday-night dates. The advisers also meet with students privately and stay in touch with parents, so they are deeply invested in the students' success. "We're constantly talking about one another's advisees," says English teacher Chris Crockett. "If you hear that yours isn't doing well in math, or see them sitting outside the dean's office, it's like a personal failure." Along with the new structure came a more demanding academic program; the percentage of freshmen taking biology jumped from 17 to 95. "It was rough for some, but by senior year, two-thirds have moved up to physics," says Gilbert. "Our kids are coming to school in part because they know there are adults here who know them and care for them." But not all schools show advances after downsizing, and it remains to be seen whether smaller schools will be a cure-all solution.
      The Newsweek list of top U.S. high schools was made this year, as in years past, according to a single metric, the proportion of students taking college-level exams. Over the years this system has come in for its share of criticism for its simplicity. But that is also its strength: it's easy for readers to understand, and to do the arithmetic for their own schools if they'd like.
      Ranking schools is always controversial, and this year a group of 38 superintendents (地区教育主管) from five states wrote to ask that their schools be excluded from the calculation. "It is impossible to know which high schools are ‘the best' in the nation," their letter read, in part. "Determining whether different schools do or don't offer a high quality of education requires a look at many different measures, including students' overall academic accomplishments and their subsequent performance in college, and taking into consideration the unique needs of their communities."
      In the end, the superintendents agreed to provide the data we sought, which is, after all, public information. There is, in our view, no real dispute here; we are all seeking the same thing, which is schools that better serve our children and our nation by encouraging students to tackle tough subjects under the guidance of gifted teachers. And if we keep working toward that goal, someday, perhaps, a list won't be necessary.

1. Fifty years ago, big, modern, suburban high schools were established in the hope of _______.
A) ensuring no child is left behind
B) increasing economic efficiency
C) improving students' performance on SAT
D) providing good education for baby boomers
2. What happened as a result of setting up big schools?
A) Students focused more on test scores.
B) Administration became centralized.
C) Teachers' workload increased.
D) Students' performance declined.
3. What is said about the schools funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation?
A) They are often located in poor neighborhoods.
B) They are popular with high-achieving students.
C) They are usually magnet schools.
D) They are mostly small in size.
4. What is most noticeable about the current trend in high school education?
A) Many schools compete for the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation funds.
B) A great variety of schools have sprung up in urban and suburban areas.
C) Students have to meet higher academic standards.
D) Some large schools have split up into smaller ones.
5. Newsweek ranked high schools according to ______.
A) the size and number of their graduating classes
B) their students' academic achievement
C) their college-level test participation
D) the number of their students admitted to college
6. What can we learn about Hillsdale's students in the late 1990s?
A) They were made to study hard like prisoners.
B) Their school performance was getting worse.
C) Most of them did not have any sense of discipline.
D) They called each other by unaffectionate nicknames.
7. According to Jeff Gilbert, the "advisory" classes at Hillsdale were set up so that students could _______.
A) maintain closer relationships with their teachers
B) experience a great deal of pleasure in learning
C) tell their teachers what they did on weekends
D) tackle the demanding biology and physics courses
8. is still considered a strength of Newsweek's school ranking system in spite of the criticism it receives.
9. According to the 38 superintendents, to rank schools scientifically, it is necessary to use.
10. To better serve the children and our nation, schools should hire gifted teachers and encourage students to take .

Part III        Listening Comprehension        (35 minutes)

Section A
Directions:In this section, you will hear 8 short conversations and 2 long conversations. At the end of each conversation, one or more questions will be asked about what was said. Both the conversation and the questions will be spoken only once. After each question there will be a pause. During the pause, you must read the four choices marked A), B), C) and D), and decide which is the best answer. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.

A) Trying to sketch a map.
B) Cleaning the kitchen.
C) Painting the dining room.
D) Discussing a house plan.
A) She is very fussy about what she eats.
B) She often eats in a French restaurant.
C) She usually takes a snack in the KFC.
D) She is tired of the food in the canteen.
A) Talking loudly on the telephone.
B) Preparing for an oral examination.
C) Listening to some loud music.
D) Practicing for a speech contest.
A) The man's jeans and T-shirts are stylish.
B) The man should buy himself a new suit.
C) The man can dress casually for the occasion.
D) The man has left a good impression on her family.
A) 100% cotton pants in dark blue.
B) Grey pants made from pure cotton.
C) Fashionable pants in bright colors.
D) Something to match her brown pants.
A) Its price.
B) Its comfort.
C) Its location.
D) Its facilities.
A) Adopt a child.
B) Look for a new job.
C) Travel overseas.
D) Take a photo.
A) It is a good bargain.
B) It is quite healthy.
C) It is new on the menu.
D) It is a routine offer.

Questions 19 to 22 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
A) Having her bicycle repaired.
B) Conducting a market survey.
C) Lecturing on business management.
D) Hosting an evening TV program.
A) He worked as a salesman.
B) He coached in a racing club.
C) He repaired bicycles.
D) He served as a consultant.
A) He found it more profitable.
B) He wanted to be his own boss.
C) He didn't want to start from scratch.
D) He didn't want to be in too much debt.
A) They are all the man's friends.
B) They work five days a week.
C) They are paid by the hour.
D) They all enjoy gambling.

Questions 23 to 25 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
A) It has gradually given way to service industry.
B) It remains a major part of industrial activity.
C) It accounts for 80 percent of the region's GDP.
D) It has a history as long as paper processing.
A) Lack of resources.
B) Shortage of funding.
C) Transport problems.
D) Poor management.
A) Competition from rival companies.
B) Product promotion campaigns.
C) Possible locations for a new factory.
D) Measures to create job opportunities.
Section B
Directions:In this section, you will hear 3 short passages. At the end of each passage, you will hear some questions. Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.

Passage One
Questions 26 to 28 are based on the passage you have just heard.

A) They shared many extracurricular activities.
B) They had known each other since childhood.
C) They shared mutual friends in school.
D) They had many interests in common.
A) At a local club.
B) At Joe's house.
C) At the boarding school.
D) At the sports center.
A) Social divisions will break down if people get to know each other.
B) One has to be respectful of other people in order to win respect.
C) It is hard for people from different backgrounds to become friends.
D) Durable friendships can be very difficult to maintain.
Questions 29 to 31 are based on the passage you have just heard.
A) In his building's parking lot.
B) Near the entrance of a park.
C) At a street corner.
D) At a parking meter.
A) It had been stolen by someone.
B) It had been moved to the next block.
C) It had been parked at a wrong place.
D) It had been taken by the police.
A) In a neighboring town.
B) In the city garage.
C) At the Greenville center.
D) At a public parking lot.

Passage Three
Questions 32 to 35 are based on the passage you have just heard.

A) Creativity as shown in arts.
B) Famous creative individuals.
C) A major scientific discovery.
D) The mysteriousness of creativity.
A) It is the source of all artistic work.
B) It starts soon after we are born.
C) It is something people all engage in.
D) It helps people acquire knowledge.
A) Natural curiosity.
B) Critical thinking.
C) Logical reasoning.
D) Creative imagination.
A) It is part of everyday life.
B) It is a unique human trait.
C) It is yet to be fully understood.
D) It is beyond ordinary people.
Section C
Directions:In this section, you will hear a passage three times. When the passage is read for the first time, you should listen carefully for its general idea. When the passage is read for the second time, you are required to fill in the blanks numbered from 36 to 43 with the exact words you have just heard. For blanks numbered from 44 to 46 you are required to fill in the missing information. For these blanks, you can either use the exact words you have just heard or write down the main points in your own words. Finally, when the passage is read for the third time, you should check what you have written.

      Students have been complaining more and more about stolen property. Radios, cell phones, bicycles, pocket (36)and books have all been reported stolen. Are there enough campus police to do the job?
      There are 20 officers in the Campus Security Division. Their job is to (37) crime, accidents, lost and found (38) , and traffic problems on campus. More than half of their time is spent directing traffic and writing parking tickets. (39)promptly to accidents and other (40) is important, but it is their smallest job.
      Dealing with crime takes up the rest of their time. Very (41) do any violent crimes actually (42) . In the last five years there have been no (43) , seven robberies, and about 60 other violent attacks, most of these involving fights at parties. On the other hand,(44), which usually involves breaking windows or lights or writing on walls. The thefts are not the carefully planned burglaries (入室盗窃) that you see in movies.(45).
      Do we really need more police? Hiring more campus police would cost money, possibly making our tuition go up again.(46).

Part IV        Reading Comprehension (Reading in Depth)        (25 minutes)

Section A

In this section, there is a passage with ten blanks. You are required to select one word for each blank from a list of choices given in a word bank following the passage. Read the passage through carefully before making your choices. Each choice in the bank is identified by a letter. Please mark the corresponding letter for each item on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre. You may not use any of the words in the bank more than once.

Questions 47 to 56 are based on the following passage.
      One in six. Believe it or not, that's the number of Americans who struggle with hunger. To make tomorrow a little better, Feeding America, the nation's largest 47 hunger-relief organization, has chosen September as Hunger Action Month. As part of its 30 Ways in 30 Days program, it is asking 48 across the country to help the more than 200 food banks and 61,000 agencies in its network provide low-income individuals and families with the fuel they need to 49.
      It's the kind of work that's done every day at St. Andrew's Episcopal Church in San Antonio. People who 50 at its front door on the first and third Thursdays of each month aren't looking for God—they're there for something to eat. St. Andrew's runs a food pantry (食品室) that 51 the city and several of the 52 towns. Janet Drane is its manager.
      In the wake of the 53, the number of families in need of food assistance began to grow. It is 54 that 49 million Americans are unsure of where they will find their next meal. What's most surprising is that 36% of them live in 55 where at least one adult is working. "It used to be that one job was all you needed," says St. Andrew's Drane. "The people we see now have three or four part-time jobs and they're still right on the edge 56."
A) accumulate
B) circling
C) communities
D) competition
E) domestic
F) financially
G) formally
H) gather
I) households
J) recession
K) reported
L) reviewed
M) serves
N) surrounding
O) survive

Section B
Directions:There are 2 passages in this section. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.

Passage one
Questions 57 to 61 are based on the following passage.

       In times of economic crisis, Americans turn to their families for support. If the Great Depression is any guide, we may see a drop in our skyhigh divorce rate. But this won't necessarily represent an increase in happy marriages. In the long run, the Depression weakened American families, and the current crisis will probably do the same.
      We tend to think of the Depression as a time when families pulled together to survive huge job losses. By 1932, when nearly one-quarter of the workforce was unemployed, the divorce rate had declined by around 25% from 1929. But this doesn't mean people were suddenly happier with their marriages. Rather, with incomes decreasing and insecure jobs, unhappy couples often couldn't afford to divorce. They feared neither spouse could manage alone.
      Today, given the job losses of the past year, fewer unhappy couples will risk starting separate households. Furthermore, the housing market meltdown will make it more difficult for them to finance their separations by selling their homes.
      After financial disasters family members also tend to do whatever they can to help each other and their communities. A 1940 book, The Unemployed Man and His Family, described a family in which the husband initially reacted to losing his job "with tireless search for work." He was always active, looking for odd jobs to do.
      The problem is that such an impulse is hard to sustain. Across the country, many similar families were unable to maintain the initial boost in morale (士气). For some, the hardships of life without steady work eventually overwhelmed their attempts to keep their families together. The divorce rate rose again during the rest of the decade as the recovery took hold.
      Millions of American families may now be in the initial stage of their responses to the current crisis, working together and supporting one another through the early months of unemployment.
      Today's economic crisis could well generate a similar number of couples whose relationships have been irreparably (无法弥补地) ruined. So it's only when the economy is healthy again that we'll begin to see just how many broken families have been created.

57. In the initial stage, the current economic crisis is likely to _______.
A) tear many troubled families apart
B) bring about a drop in the divorce rate
C) cause a lot of conflicts in the family
D) contribute to enduring family ties
58. In the Great Depression many unhappy couples chose to stick together because _______.
A) starting a new family would be hard
B) they wanted to better protect their kids
C) living separately would be too costly
D) they expected things would turn better
59. In addition to job losses, what stands in the way of unhappy couples getting a divorce?
A) A sense of insecurity.
B) Mounting family debts.
C) Difficulty in getting a loan.
D) Falling housing prices.
60. What will the current economic crisis eventually do to some married couples?
A) It will force them to pull their efforts together.
B) It will undermine their mutual understanding.
C) It will irreparably damage their relationship.
D) It will help strengthen their emotional bonds.
61. What can be inferred from the last paragraph?
A) A stable family is the best protection against poverty.
B) Money is the foundation of many a happy marriage.
C) Few couples can stand the test of economic hardships.
D) The economic recovery will see a higher divorce rate.
Passage two
Questions 62 to 66 are based on the following passage.

      People are being lured (引诱) onto Facebook with the promise of a fun, free service, without realizing they're paying for it by giving up loads of personal information. Facebook then attempts to make money by selling their data to advertisers that want to send targeted messages.
      Most Facebook users don't realize this is happening. Even if they know what the company is up to, they still have no idea what they're paying for Facebook, because people don't really know what their personal data is worth.
The biggest problem, however, is that the company keeps changing the rules. Early on, you could keep everything private. That was the great thing about Facebook—you could create your own little private network. Last year, the company changed its privacy rules so that many things—your city, your photo, your friends' names—were set, by default (默认), to be shared with everyone on the Internet.
According to Facebook's vice-president Elliot Schrage, the company is simply making changes to improve its service, and if people don't share information, they have a "less satisfying experience."
      Some critics think this is more about Facebook looking to make more money. Its original business model, which involved selling ads and putting them at the side of the page, totally failed. Who wants to look at ads when they're online connecting with their friends?
      The privacy issue has already landed Facebook in hot water in Washington. In April, Senator Charles Schumer called on Facebook to change its privacy policy. He also urged the Federal Trade Commission to set guidelines for social-networking sites. "I think the senator rightly communicated that we had not been clear about what the new products were and how people could choose to use them or not to use them," Schrage admits.
      I suspect that whatever Facebook has done so far to invade our privacy, it's only the beginning. Which is why I'm considering deactivating (撤销) my account. Facebook is a handy site, but I'm upset by the idea that my information is in the hands of people I don't trust. That is too high a price to pay.

62. What do we learn about Facebook from the first paragraph?
A) It is a website that sends messages to targeted users.
B) It makes money by putting on advertisements.
C) It provides loads of information to its users.
D) It profits by selling its users' personal data.
63. What does the author say about most Facebook users?
A) They care very little about their personal information.
B) They are reluctant to give up their personal information.
C) They don't know their personal data enriches Facebook.
D) They don't identify themselves when using the website.
64. Why does Facebook make changes to its rules according to Elliot Schrage?
A) To conform to the Federal guidelines.
B) To improve its users' connectivity.
C) To render better service to its users.
D) To expand its scope of business.
65. What does Senator Charles Schumer advocate?
A) Setting guidelines for advertising on websites.
B) Formulating regulations for social-networking sites.
C) Banning the sharing of users' personal information.
D) Removing ads from all social-networking sites.
66. Why does the author plan to cancel his Facebook account?
A) He finds many of its users untrustworthy.
B) He is upset by its frequent rule changes.
C) He doesn't want his personal data abused.
D) He is dissatisfied with its current service.

Part V        Cloze        (15 minutes)

Directions:There are 20 blanks in the following passage. For each blank there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D) on the right side of the paper. You should choose the ONE that best fits into the passage. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.

        Because conflict and disagreements are part of all close relationships, couples need to learn strategies for managing conflict in a healthy and constructive way. Some couples just 67 and deny the presence of any conflict in a relationship. 68, denying the existence of conflict results in couples 69to solve their problems at early 70, which can then lead to even greater problems later 71. Not surprisingly, expressing anger and disagreement leads to lower marital (婚姻的) satisfaction at the beginning. However, this pattern of behavior 72 increases in marital satisfaction over time. Research suggests that working 73 conflicts is an important predictor of marital satisfaction.
        So, what can you do to manage conflict in your own relationships? First, try to understand the other person's point of view 74 put yourself in his or her place. People who are 75 to what their partner thinks and feels 76 greater relationship satisfaction. For example, researchers found that among people in dating relationships 77 marriages, those who can adopt their partner's perspective show more positive78, more relationship-enhancing attributes, and more constructive responses 79 conflict.
        Second, because conflict and disagreements are an 80 part of close relationships, people need to be able to apologize to their partner for wrongdoings and 81 forgiveness from their partner for their own acts. Apologies minimize conflict, lead to forgiveness, and serve to restore relationship closeness. In line 82 this view, spouses who are more forgiving show higher marital 83 over time. Increasingly, apologizing can even have 84 health benefits. For example,when people reflect on hurtful 85 and grudges (怨恨), they show negative physiological (生理的) effects, including 86 heart rate and blood pressure, compared to when they reflect on sympathetic perspective-taking and forgiving.
67. A) resolve B) regret C) avoid D) abandon
68. A) Therefore B) However C) Moreover D) Besides
69. A) trying B) striving C) declining D) failing
70. A) ages B) years C) stages D) intervals
71. A) on B) by C) off D) away
72. A) predicts B) prescribes C) protects D) proves
73. A) through B) amid C) among D) round
74. A) so B) and C) but D) while
75. A) superior B) sensitive C) exclusive D) efficient
76. A) expose B) exploit C) explore D) experience
77. A) as long as B) as well as C) as far as D) as soon as
78. A) psychology B) minds C) emotions D) affection
79. A) at B) against C) toward D) to
80. A) inevitable B) essential C) absolute D) obvious
81. A) achieve B) inquire C) require D) receive
82. A) with B) over C) up D) of
83. A) identify B) charity C) capacity D) quality
84. A) creative B) positive C) objective D) competitive
85. A) memories B) prospects C) concepts D) outlooks
86. A) toughened B) increased C) added D) strengthened

Part VI        Translation        (5 minutes)

Directions:Complete the sentences by translating into English the Chinese given in brackets. Please write your translation on Answer Sheet 2.
87. Those flowers looked as if they (好长时间没浇水了).
88. Fred bought a car last week. It is(比我的车便宜一千英镑).
89. This TV program is quite boring. We might (不妨听听音乐).
90. He left his office in a hurry, with(灯亮着,门开着).
91.The famous novel is said to (已经被译成多种语言).